Tag Archives: hypnotherapy

opinions of People with IBS towards hypnotherapy

Opinions of People with IBS towards Hypnotherapy (SAPC 2017)

Opinions of people with IBS towards Hypnotherapy

Recently I presented at the Society for Academic Primary Care (SAPC) Conference at Warwick University (UK).  Below is a short video covering some of the main points and below that is the written out full length presentation.

 Full Text – presented to clinicians 

Science or Magic! … well if you were asked which one you represented I suspect you know what you would say? … not so much for me … I’m a hypnotherapist … and none of us control my own image … So what I want to know is which do people see me closer to the scientific world, with a body of knowledge which can be taught, is structured and replicable … or the magical world where the ability to heal is not explicable … not strictly learnable … but comes from something unknowable

And why does this question matter, why is this question important to primary care?

Back in 2008 Hypnotherapy was accepted into NICE guidelines as a treatment for refractory IBS, refractor IBS is IBS which hasn’t responded to primary treatment and has developed an ongoing profile of symptoms.

There was good reason for this inclusion

·         IBS is a substantial problem with prevalence rates around 10% internationally, we don’t know exactly how many of those people are classified as ‘refractory’ but it could be as many as 1/3rd.

·         IBS is expensive for the NHS, with approximate 0.1% spent within the NHS being on IBS, 50 million of which alone is accounted for by anti-spasmodic and laxatives, the rest being in other forms of medication to controls symptoms, but one of the biggest expenses being in GP time.

·         And although it’s not life threatening it does make people’s lives a misery. Its effects their attendance at work, their ability to work (so called presentism) and they usually are paying out of their own pocket for treatments and remedies, some studies suggest the this is roughly equal to the amount the NHS spend.

So there is good reason to integrate any effective tool, particularly if it provides and actual cure, rather than just a control.

But to the best we can tell, people with IBS are not interested Hypnotherapy for their condition, they are not seeking it out either in the public or private sector and we wondered why. One of the things we considered was the image of hypnotherapy and the hypnotherapist, may present a barrier, specifically we were interested in seeing if the perception of the hypnotherapists was more medical or more magical?

So!  

I am conducting 1-2-1, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with adults with refractory IBS to find out their opinions about hypnotherapy. These will be analysed using the framework method for indications of what the Sociologist Weber characterised as the Bureaucratic and Charismatic,

·         Bureaucratic meaning reliable, teachable, learnable

·         Charismatic meaning having power from within

So far the main finding has been that it’s very hard to recruit for this stuff, possibly there are too many elements –  IBS, refractory, hypnosis but the one interview which I have conducted has raised some interesting findings  

Firstly, the phrase ‘Cluck like a chicken’ was used, a phrase I’ve heard a lot as a hypnotherapist, another one was “funfair comedy magician thing” suggesting that the musical hall associations of hypnosis are strongly present. This points to a third image which is not science nor magic but frippery, entertainment … and who’s going to consider using hypnotherapy for their IBS if they perceive it as an entertainment.

However, this should be balanced against another observation the interviewee made

“But I’ve not heard of hypnotherapy for an actual medical reason, it’s always been for phobia or … maybe depression, that what I associate hypnotherapy with”

So the connection with mental health appears established in her mind but not with physical health, and although it’s very early days on this research perhaps this is the true barrier to usage, People just don’t think of hypnotherapy for physical problems. They don’t see the connection.

What is the difference between neurosis and psychosis

What is the difference between neurosis and psychosis ?

What is the difference between neurosis and psychosis?  Let us start by defining neurosis and psychosis.

 

Neurosis

Neurosis is a broad term rarely used by therapists and psychologists these days. However, it does have some value to hypnotherapists. Broadly, neurosis can be said to be a mental problem in which the suffer is in touch with reality. Often this appears as a logical – emotional dissonance.  This means the suffer can tell you that their behaviour is inappropriate but feel it is beyond their control.  Typical examples would include;

  • Phobia’s – in which the sufferer knows that the trigger for the phobia is not dangerous.
  • Obsessions – where the obsessed know that they are over focused but cannot break out of that.
  • Extreme Habits – the sufferer may be able to identify the habit as unpleasant, but they are unable to take control of it.
  • Twitches and ticks – where the afflicted cannot control the muscles involved but there is no identifiable physical problem.

With neurosis there is an implication that some life event or problem is influencing the problem.  This may not always be true as a life event may have initiated the problem behaviour but it may now be a habit.

Neurosis is the most serious level of mental health issue a hypnotherapist may deal with. Psychosis (see below) are contraindicated for hypnotherapy.

Psychosis

is a general term used to describe any set of symptoms where the sufferer is thought to be out of touch with external reality. This may be due to any number of factors such as organic brain impairment or long term stress.  Symptoms of psychosis include

  • Delusions.
  • Severe lack of insight or self-awareness.
  • Hallucinations.

If you have any concerns that a potential patient may be out of touch with reality refer them on to a doctor.

Factors which affect hypnotisability

What are contraindications ?

So what are contraindications ?

Essentially a contraindication is a reason NOT to do something. So in the medical world, which is where we get the term from, a good example would be:

  • Drug X is for migraines, but also lowers blood pressure.
  • The patient has migraines, but also has low blood pressure.
  • because Drug X is likely to further lower the patients blood pressure and thus put them at risk it should not be prescribes. Drug X is contraindicated for patients with Low blood pressure.

What are contraindications for hypnotherapists?

Hypnotherapy is a relatively safe intervention.  Many hypnotists will argue that hypnosis is an entirely normal process, no more dangerous than falling asleep. However, there is the issue of how hypnosis is induced and what is done once a client is in hypnosis.

What are the general contraindications for the use of hypnosis ?

Most hypnotherapists agree that it is unwise to work with people who are in states of psychosis. This means that they have a problem which causes them to be out of touch with reality. Psychosis may include hallucinations, grandiose beliefs, paranoia.

There is discussion around people with epilepsy which occurs when they fall asleep. The process of hypnosis may be related to the state change from being awake to asleep. As a rule with people with epilepsy which is triggered by falling asleep I recommend extreme caution, ask about their medication and how stable they are on their medication, inform them of the facts and when it doubt refer to your professional body .

What are the specific contraindications for the use of hypnotherapy ?

The most common contraindications which come up in therapy are for a particular type of client with a particular type of technique. For example;

  • Eye tiring inductions should not be used with people with eye pain, strain or  glaucoma.
  • Arm based techniques (limb heaviness, arm levitation) should not be used with people arm pain, strain or joint problems.
  • Body focused techniques ( muscle relaxation, body scan inductions) should be avoided with people who have conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and panic attacks where there is a tendency to monitor the body for  symptoms.

These are but a few examples, and others will be flagged up in technique specific videos. The rule of thumb is think about what you are doing, use your common sense and when in doubt play it safe!

 

What are contraindications

Author – Matt Krouwel is a  hypnotherapist in Birmingham (UK). He is also the course leader for the West Midlands  School of Clinical Hypnotherapy  

 

 

 

 

Factors which affect hypnotisability

Some lessons in hypnosis for CAMMRA

Lessons in hypnosis for the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Midlands Research Alliance (CAMMRA)

Today I’m off to the annual CAMMRA conference to give some hypnosis lessons and talk about the general public’s attitude towards hypnotherapy.

I had the privilege to be an invited guest at last years conference and this year I’m back to present. If last year is anything to go by I can expect a varied and open minded audience of complimentary and alternative therapists (CAM),  academics and medical researchers for my hypnosis lessons.

The main thrust of my talk is around the research I’ve been conducting into public attitudes and opinions regarding hypnosis. Sadly I’m currently unable to blog on this particular topic at the moment due to an agreement with the journal which is looking to publish it, but once it’s out I will let everyone know my findings.

Find out more about hypnosis lessons

Hope you have a great day!

hypnosis lessons

Author – Matt Krouwel is a Birmingham based Clinical hypnotist and course leader for the West Midlands School of Clinical Hypnosis

 

2016 a good year for pain!

2016 has only been here for a few weeks and the evidence for hypnotherapy as a tool to aid with pain abounds.

First we have to thank Kendrick et al for reviewing 25 randomised control trials (RTC’s) of hypnotic pain control for acute procedural pain. They found that hypnosis is at least as good as other psychological or behavioural pain control approaches and was especially good;

  • When sessions could be done in advance of the procedure.
  • For minor surgical procedures.

A meta-analysis of Iranian hypnosis studies (Sayehmiri, ) further confirms its efficacy with evidence from studies totalling 332 patients being combined.

Additionally we have new research from Ardigo et al into chronic pain in the elder, in which 3 x 30 minute hypnotherapeutic pain control sessions out performed an equivalent amount of massage as an analgesic for 53 geriatric patients (27 received hypno, 27 massage). Notably it appears that the hypnosis group benefited from pain reduction for longer.

We also have Del Casale et al publishing a meta-analysis of hypnosis neuro-imaging studies… which is nice and I’m sure people with better neuroanatomy than me will love it.

A big ‘Well done!’ to all those who are moving the evidence base forward in 2016!

Matt Krouwel DBSCH

West Midlands School of Clinical Hypnotherapy

Matt Krouwel – Hypnotherapy

References

Ardigo, S., Herrmann, F. R., Moret, V., Déramé, L., Giannelli, S., Gold, G., & Pautex, S. (2016). Hypnosis can reduce pain in hospitalized older patients: a randomized controlled study. BMC geriatrics, 16(1), 1.

Del Casale, A., Ferracuti, S., Rapinesi, C., De Rossi, P., Angeletti, G., Sani, G., … & Girardi, P. (2016). Hypnosis and pain perception: An Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Journal of Physiology-Paris.

Kendrick, C., Sliwinski, J., Yu, Y., Johnson, A., Fisher, W., Kekecs, Z., & Elkins, G. (2016). Hypnosis for Acute Procedural Pain: A Critical Review. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 64(1), 75-115.

Sayehmiri, K. (2016). Determining the Effectiveness of Hypnosis in the Treatment of Pain and Enhancing Mental Performance in Iran Using Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Epidemiologic Research.